High-performance modules with an efficiency of more than 21% - Ensuring maximum yields

The efficiency of a solar module is central and plays a major role in determining how much benefit you can get from your solar system. Therefore, it is important to choose modules with a high efficiency to maximize energy production. Here you will find all modules with an efficiency of over 21%, whether mono or bifacial, black or silver frame, or full black modules. For cell types, you can choose between p-doped cells, n-doped cells and heterojunction cells. The best price-performance ratio is currently seen in solar modules with n-doped cells. Moreover, such highly efficient modules are equipped with the latest half-cell technology to ensure maximum energy yield. We carry the most efficient modules from the most reputable manufacturers in the industry, such as JA Solar, Jinko, Trina, Longi, Canadian and many more. We carry a very wide range of highly efficient solar modules with a rated power of up to 660W. You can get all this from us at reasonable prices, which we can guarantee through cooperation with leading distributors in Europe. 

To ensure that you really only get the results that are relevant to you, we have implemented filter options that work intuitively and quickly. In addition, search filters can be saved. Registration on our marketplace is free of charge and risk-free for you. The only requirement is that your company is active in the solar industry. 

Read more

High-efficiency solar modules - what is there to consider?

The solar cells used in a solar module, the performance and efficiency of a solar module.

Here is an overview of the most important points:
1. Maximum performance: The best solar cells achieve high efficiency by maximizing the conversion of incident sunlight into electricity. In practice, the best values are currently around 25%.
2. Efficient use of resources: A good solar cell is characterized by the efficient use of raw materials. This enables optimal use of available resources while reducing the environmental footprint.
3. Long durability: The best solar cell has a long lifetime and maintains its performance over a long period of time. Long durability is critical for long-term viability and sustainable operation. PID and LID are the important criteria here.
4. Balanced price-performance ratio: The best solar cell offers a good price-performance ratio, that is, it achieves high performance at a reasonable price. This enables an economically attractive use of solar technology.
5. Applicability and scalability: A good solar cell is characterized by its broad applicability and scalability on an industrial scale. It is versatile and can be used flexibly in various applications.
6. Recyclability: The best solar cell also takes into account the recyclability of the raw materials used. Environmentally friendly disposal and recycling of solar cells contribute to the sustainability of solar technology.
7. Emerging Technologies: Current developments indicate that TOPCon and HJT solar cells could replace the previous leading PERC technology in the next 5 to 10 years. Tandem solar cells currently achieve the highest efficiencies and show promising potential for the future.
8. Impact of metallization: The way raw materials are used in metallization significantly affects manufacturing costs. Efficient metallization processes help to reduce production costs and enable more economical production of solar cells.

Overall, maximum performance, efficient use of resources, long durability, balanced price-performance ratio and consideration of new technologies are crucial for the best solar cell. Through continuous research and development and innovations in manufacturing technology, solar cells continue to be optimized and offer promising potential for the use of renewable energy.

PV technologies on the market, efficient solar modules: 

The impact of efficiency on solar cell efficiency.

Selecting the right PV technology is crucial for engineers to develop efficient and high-performance solar modules. When evaluating different technologies, solar cell efficiency plays a key role. Learn more about the different PV technologies and their efficiencies here.

1. natural efficiency limits: The semiconductors used in solar cells have natural efficiency limits. According to the Shockley-Queisser limit, crystalline silicon (c-Si) reaches a theoretical efficiency of 26.7%. Gallium arsenide (GaAs) achieves a theoretical efficiency of 29.1 % and cadmium telluride (CdTe) 22.1 %.
2. Distribution of crystalline silicon: The use of crystalline silicon is most widespread. Silicon wafer modules account for more than 95% of the global market share of all installed solar systems. However, in terms of the efficiency potential achievable in practice, the improvements in the latest silicon solar cells are marginal, around 25%. Solar cell design continues to evolve to unlock further efficiency potential.
3. PERC, TOPCon, and HJT technologies: Currently, PERC solar cells dominate the market with a theoretical efficiency of 24.5% (share of about 75% in 2021). However, research expects TOPCon and HJT technologies to grow. The combined market share of these two solar cell types was around 5% in 2021.
4. TOPCon technology: TOPCon stands for Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact and describes a special design of solar cells. The Longi HiMo 6 is one of the best solar modules with TOPCon technology. It is characterized by high efficiency and performance.
5. HJT technology: Heterojunction technology (HJT) uses n-type silicon wafers with thin layers of doped and intrinsic silicon and transparent conductive oxide (TCO) layers. This technology has long been used for solar cell production and offers promising potential.
The efficiency of a solar cell is a fundamental indicator of its performance and cost-effectiveness. However, it is important to note that published efficiencies are achieved under ideal standard test conditions (STC), which rarely occur in practice. Engineers should also consider other factors such as cost, reliability and scalability when selecting PV technology.
With continued research and development, solar cells continue to be optimized to achieve higher efficiencies and improved power generation. Choosing the right technology is critical to making solar systems more efficient and sustainable, and to contributing to the global energy transition.

Performance comparison between TOPCon and PERC solar cells: Fraunhofer ISE study

A recent study by the Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems (ISE) compares the performance of TOPCon and PERC solar cells and shows interesting results. The two technologies compete for market share and are promising for the future of photovoltaics (PV).
PERC (Passivated Emitter Rear Cell) technology currently dominates the PV market with a market share of about 75%. These solar cells are characterized by a passivated emitter rear electrode, which leads to higher light absorption and improved energy yield. The theoretical efficiency of PERC solar cells is 24.5%.
TOPCon (Tunnel Oxide Passivated Contact) technology is a promising alternative to PERC. The study shows that TOPCon cells have high efficiency potential and are capable of outperforming PERC solar cells in terms of efficiency. The theoretical efficiency of TOPCon solar cells is about 25.8%.
Researchers at Fraunhofer ISE have found that TOPCon cells perform better than PERC cells in low light conditions, such as those that occur in the early morning or late evening hours. This is due to lower recombination at the cell contacts, which is better suppressed with TOPCon technology.
In addition, TOPCon solar cells also offer better temperature dependence compared to PERC. They show less decrease in efficiency with increasing temperatures. This is an important factor for the performance of solar cells in hot climates or under intense solar radiation.
However, the study also emphasizes that the production costs of TOPCon cells are currently higher than those of PERC. Commercial implementation of TOPCon technology therefore requires further research and development to reduce costs and improve competitiveness.
Overall, the Fraunhofer ISE study shows that TOPCon solar cells have promising potential for the future of photovoltaics. They offer higher performance in low light conditions and better temperature dependence compared to PERC cells. The industry will continue to work to reduce the cost and make TOPCon technology more commercially attractive. This performance comparison between the two technologies shows that the development of new PV technologies is making an important contribution to the advancement of solar energy.
Source: https://www.pv-magazine.de/2022/01/20/fraunhofer-ise-topcon-vs-perc/

How do you determine the efficiency of a solar cell?

The efficiency of a solar cell is determined in a precise and reproducible manner. For this purpose, the cells are tested under standard conditions in the laboratory. In these Standard Test Conditions (STC), the cell is irradiated vertically with a "solar simulator", also known as a "flasher" in the industry. Under STC, a defined radiation power of 1,000W and the spectrum of natural light are reproduced. In addition, the ambient temperature is kept constant at 25°. The performance characteristics are listed in the data sheet, as are possible variances. Usually, customers receive a flash list following an order. The actual performance data of the product is then recorded there at module level. The modules can then be assigned via the serial number. 
The incident light energy generates electrons in the cell and leads to a current flow when the negative and positive terminals are connected. The cell adjusts its voltage to regulate the current flow depending on the connected load. As the load is further increased, the cell reaches a point of maximum power (Pmpp), after which the current and voltage drop.
To determine the power of the solar cell, multiply the measured values of current and voltage at the Pmpp. The calculated value is then divided by the irradiated power to determine the cell's efficiency.
It is important to note that the efficiency and performance ratio of a PV system depend on several individual factors. Accurately determining these values can be challenging for residential users. Therefore, solar cell efficiency plays a larger role in the public discussion than the performance ratio of an entire system. The efficiency of the solar cells serves as a quality characteristic and can be measured precisely, while the performance ratio is influenced by various external influences.
However, the efficiency of the modules is also subject to external factors, such as the irradiation value or the ambient temperature. The temperature coefficient has a direct influence on the performance of a solar module. The temperature coefficient indicates how the module's performance behaves with changes in operating temperature. Since solar modules are heated by solar radiation, it is important to understand how temperature affects their performance.
A positive temperature coefficient means that the module's performance decreases as the temperature increases. Typically, the temperature coefficient is between -0.3% and -0.5% per degree Celsius. This means that the performance of the module decreases by this percentage per degree Celsius increase in temperature.

Comparison of phosphorus doping and boron doping of solar cells: Advantages and disadvantages

Doping is a critical step in the manufacture of solar cells that involves targeted impurities in semiconductor materials to achieve specific electrical properties. Phosphorus and boron doping are two common methods used to impart specific properties to desired semiconductor materials such as silicon. Here are the advantages and disadvantages of both doping techniques:
Phosphorus Doping: Advantages:
1. Electron Doping: Phosphorus dopes the silicon with additional electrons, making the semiconductor n-doped. This leads to an increase in the conductivity of the material.
2. Good electrical properties: Phosphorus-doped silicon exhibits high mobility of charge carriers, resulting in efficient electrical conductivity.
3.. low electrical resistance: phosphorus-doped silicon shows low electrical resistance, which leads to low energy loss and better solar cell performance.
1. Recombination: phosphorus doping can increase the recombination of charge carriers, which can lead to loss of photocurrent and lower solar cell efficiency.
2. Surface defects: Phosphorus doping can lead to defects on the surface of the silicon, which can affect the quality of the material and lead to a reduced lifetime of the solar cell.
3. Diffusion process: the doping process with phosphorus requires special techniques such as the diffusion process, which can be more complex and expensive.
Boron doping: advantages:
1. Hole doping: boron dopes the silicon with holes, which p-dopes the semiconductor. This allows the flow of holes as charge carriers and contributes to the conductivity of the material.
2. Low recombination: Boron-doped silicon shows less recombination of charge carriers, which can lead to higher solar cell efficiency.
3. Lower surface defects: Boron doping results in fewer defects on the surface of the silicon compared to phosphorus doping.
1. Lower mobility: Boron-doped silicon exhibits lower mobility of charge carriers compared to phosphorus-doped silicon, which may result in lower electrical conductivity.
2.. higher electrical resistance: boron-doped silicon exhibits higher electrical resistance than phosphorus-doped silicon, which can lead to higher energy loss and lower solar cell performance.
3. Sensitivity to temperature: boron-doped solar cells can be susceptible to changes in ambient temperature, which can affect their performance.
Overall, both phosphorus and boron doping offer specific advantages and disadvantages for solar cell performance. The choice of doping method depends on several factors, such as the desired charge carrier type, efficiency, and cost. Ongoing research and development in this area is aimed at improving doping techniques and continuously increasing the efficiency and performance of solar cells.